Russia and Japan have yet to sign a formal treaty ending World War II hostilities, due to their territorial dispute over the four South Kuril Islands, former Japanese territory annexed by the Soviet Union after the war.
"This [peace treaty] can only be done in a way that will meet the national interests of the Russian Federation," Putin told reporters.
He said the content of a peace treaty would be a focus of future bilateral negotiations.
The premier said on Tuesday that President Dmitry Medvedev would discuss territorial issues and a formal peace treaty with Japanese Prime Minister Taro Aso at the upcoming G8 summit in Italy.
Putin visited Tokyo on Tuesday to discuss the long-standing dispute, along with economic, energy and international issues.
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The main event of the third day of the 11th meeting of the Valdai International Discussion Club in Sochi was the closing session with President Vladimir Putin. The atmosphere was calm and open, despite the current political tensions and the Russia-West confrontation. The Russian president said that it corresponded to the spirit of the Valdai Club.